Listed below are some guidances where PopPK or PK/PD studies are recommended by FDA or EMEA.
Population Pharmacokinetics [PDF] - This document provides recommendation on the study design and execution, model development & validation and reporting the results of a PopPK analysis. Some examples of how the results are used in drug labeling are also provided. However, the document doesnt delve deep into the qualification of softwares used for such analysis. Neither does it talk about any preferred softwares like NONMEM or SAS or Splus.
Guideline on Reporting the Results of Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis [PDF] - This EMEA guideline provides in detail the information required in a report submitted for their review. I like this document over FDA's guidance especially because they spell out exactly the kind of information one needs to report in terms of NONMEM lingo eg, choice of analysis (parametric or non parametric or bayesian), estimation methods (FO vs FOCE vs FOCE INTER), GOF plots like DV vs PRED, DV vs IPRED (with line of identity and trend line (:>)) and so forth.
Other guidances that recommend PK/PD evaluations include
- FDA Final Guidance on exposure-response relationships - study design, data analysis and regulatory applications. [PDF]
- Pharmacokinetics in Pregnancy— Study Design, Data Analysis, and Impact on Dosing and Labeling [PDF] -
- Guideline on the Role of Pharmacokinetics in the Development of Medicinal Products in the Paediatric Population [PDF] - Efficay and safety data from adults can be extrapolated to obtain PK information for paediatric patients. When PK studies are to be carried out in paediatric population, PopPK studies with sparse sampling methodolgy seems to be the best approach. In young patients, there is rapid maturation of organs that are involved in drug absorption, distribution and elimination necessiating different dosage regimen. Thus for drugs that are intended to be used in paediatrics, this document provides recommendations on the study design of PK studies.
More in my next post...